The loss of time is an unprofitable phenomenon for the employer, which leads to a decrease in profits.
The undertime and unproductive use of working time are the components of the loss of time. Reporting of the undertime helps to identify and prevent the consequences of less than planned working hours.
Working time is the period during which employees are required to perform work.
Reporting of the undertime of employees
Causes of undertime:
- absence from work (sickness absence, vacation, tardiness, absenteeism);
For what the undertime control is provided
- to calculate the salary;
When it is calculated on the basis of the total working time (and is not fixed).
- to find places of irrational organization of production;
- to learn the potential of labour productivity;
- to learn how to reduce the loss of working hours;
- to find out if it is possible to eliminate the loss of working hours.
The purpose of reporting involves a mathematical calculation of working time losses and undertime and an analysis of the causes of their occurrence.
Who is responsible for the loss of working hours
The reasons for the loss of working hours caused by the employee:
- unproductive use of working time (when it’s misused:smoke breaks, breaks for tea, coffee, talks with colleagues, solving personal issues, searching for information on the Internet, etc.);
In general, for industry in Ukraine, absenteeism due to illness is 60 – 80% in the total number of daily losses.
Loss of working hours caused by the employer happens due to:
- unproductive use of working time (when it’s misused by meetings, competitions, events, downtines, breaks);
- unproductive work (correction of defects, work that is done not in accordance with standards and rules, for example, manual dreadging, when this work is to be done by machine);
- unfavourable working conditions and poor organization (low productivity, occupational illnesses and industrial injuries).
In general, for Ukrainian industry in enterprises with proper working conditions, the loss of working hours due to illness is approximately 2.5% of the annual work-time fund, at enterprises with unsatisfactory working conditions – 5-10%.
How the undertime is remunerated depends on who was responsible for it: an employee or an employer.
Undertime remuneration caused by an employee
The sick leave and leave are paid according to the legislation.
Late arrivals and absenteeism are taken into account when the enterprise uses a combined monitoring of working hours. Working time is reduced by the time of delays and absenteeism, salary is reduced.
Downtime caused by an employee is not paid for – Labour Law.
How to estimate undertime by summary calculation
The working time norm for the reporting period is calculated. A calculation is made of the working time actually worked during this period. Actually spent working timeis deducted from the norm. The difference is undertime (or overtime).
Example of remuneration for undertime caused by an employee:
Standard working hours of a seller for the month is 176 hours (working week – 40 hours, working day – 8 hours, 22 working days per month). The time worked is 174 hours (20 days for 8 hours and 2 days for 7 hours, as the store was closed earlier due to the seller’s leaving on personal issues). Undertime is 2 hours (176 – 174). Deficiency was caused by the employee, 2 undertime hours are not paid.
Remuneration for undertime caused by an employer
Downtime not caused by an employee is remunerated at the rate not less than two thirds of the tariff rate of the category (salary) set to the employee (evidence from the Ukrainian Labour Law).
Downtime caused by an amployer is suspension of works due to lack of materials, equipment, technological documentation, equipment failure, for other reasons not related to the fault of an employee.
Downtime occurs when the employer does not provide the employee with work, for example, has drawn up a schedule in such way that the employee has not fulfilled the working time norm.
Example of remuneration for undertime caused by an employer:
Conditions of the example mentioned above are retained, except the reason for seller’s leaving work early. Now this is a leaving due to the fact that the electricity was turned off. Downtime is caused by the employer, as he did not provide with the generator a store located in the area where electricity is often cut off. 2 hours of downtime must be paid to the seller in the amount of two thirds of its tariff rate.
Downtime due to the situation (which is not causedby an employee), dangerous for the life or health of the employee or for the people who surround him, and the environment, is paid to the employee at the level of the average salary.
Loss of working hours is being determined by systems and programs
- for monitoring of arrival and leaving time of employees;
Registration with name cards at entrance turnstiles.
- for calculating of attendance time;
The program installed on the computer registers the beginning and the end of the work, breaks, their reasons (smoke break, lunch, meeting). Based on this, the loss of working hours is calculated.
- for calculation of time work;
The program provides statistics on work on the computer:
- how muchtime is spent on useful websites and programs,
- howmuch on conditionally useful,
- howmuch on useless.
Basedonthis, the loss of working hours is calculated.
Employees are obliged to come to work on time, observe the fixed working hours and use them only for productive work. These are terms of employment relationships.
Elimination of losses of working time and its productive use by employees is in the interests of the manager. After all, these are the factors that make it possible to increase output without additional investment.